Poverty, Inequality and Drugs  


While the correlation between poverty, inequality and social conflict is complex, it is important to remember that the Colombian conflict has its origin, in part, in the absence of human security (security on the land, security of employment, security of access to quality health care and education). This dynamic forms part of a vicious cycle, whereby conflict extends and also deepens poverty and inequality.

The lucrative drugs trade provides huge profits for paramilitary and guerrilla groups, and is an important motor in the perpetuation of the conflict and violence. In addition, illegal groups are now gaining huge profits from providing machinery and protection for mining, as well as carrying out illegal mining themselves.

Grass-roots experience, often supported by international cooperation, shows that it is both possible and feasible to begin to redress inequality and exclusion and to alleviate poverty. Alternative development initiatives have been undertaken to help rural communities replace coca crop cultivation and guarantee sustainable livelihoods for small-scale farmers. Such efforts, if accompanied and strengthened by public policies that go beyond welfare aid, could have a real and lasting impact on levelling out persisting inequalities. 


Photo credit: Sean Sprague

Poverty and Inequality

Colombia is a middle income country where a large proportion (30.6%) of the population live in poverty. [1] Colombia is also the third most unequal country in Latin America and tenth in the world. [2] Furthermore, poverty and inequality disproportionately affects women, children, Afro-Colombian and Indigenous groups and displaced persons. 

The poverty gap is most evident between rural and urban areas: 42.8% of the rural population are poor compared to 26.9% in urban areas. The same is also true in the case of extreme poverty: in rural areas 19.1 per cent live in extreme poverty compared to 6 per cent in urban areas. [3]

There is a small overall poverty reduction in Colombia: According to the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights Country Report 2015, 'those living in rural areas suffer most from the negation of rights that characterizes poverty'. According to the National Department of Statistics (DANE), 24.8 per cent of the population lives in poverty: in urban areas, the poverty rate is 18.5 per cent, while in rural areas it is 45.9 per cent. On this point, the State reported that the change between 2012 and 2013 was -2.2 percentage points at the national level, -2.1 percentage points in main towns, and -2.4 percentage points elsewhere. [4]

The situation in Chocó Department, this department, is populated mostly by Afro-Colombians (82.1 per cent) and indigenous peoples (12.7 per cent) Colombia registers its highest percentage of the population in “monetary poverty”: 63.1 per cent, in contrast with Bogota, which has the lowest percentage, at 10.2 per cent. [5]

Rural poverty is of particular concern given that poverty and exclusion in rural areas has traditionally been one of the root causes of socio-political violence in the country and continues to be an important conflict accelerator. 

Colombia’s reduction in overall poverty has been achieved largely by targeted and rapid poverty reduction in Bogota and Medellin. From 2005 to 2012 poverty in Colombia’s two largest cities fell by an average of 23.3%, compared to just 7.6% for the slightly smaller cities of Barranquilla and Cali over the same period. [7] This shows that whilst more work needs to be done to reduce rural poverty, efforts also need to be put into reducing poverty at a greater rate in other Colombian cities.

The Land Issue


One area where rural inequality is most profoundly expressed is in the inequitable distribution of land. Land concentration in Colombia is biased towards large landowners at the expense of rural small-scale farmers: little more than 1% of landowners own more than half of rural land. [9] 
Concentration of land ownership has increased over recent years, fuelled by the forced displacement of rural communities: it is estimated that around 8 million hectares of land have been abandoned by people fleeing the conflict. [10] Unequal landownership deprives rural farmers of a livelihood and so perpetuates income inequality. Additionally, by reducing the land available for small-scale farmers to produce food for subsistence, unequal landownership contributes to food insecurity, resulting in health problems including malnutrition, anaemia, calcium deficiencies, and deficiencies in calorie intake.  

Photo credit: CAFOD


Poverty and Vulnerability


Poverty involves the systematic violation of economic, social and cultural rights that affect almost every sphere of life, and which are frequently inter-dependent. Very few poor people work in the formal sector, which would allow them access to health care or pension benefits.  Thus the income poverty from which they suffer is further aggravated by insecurity and by the inadequacy of the social services to which they have access. 

In addition, poor quality and access to education disproportionately affect children from poor families, making it even harder for them to ever break the cycle of poverty.  



More Informacion:

Useful Links (documents and websites)



[1] Pobreza Monetaria y Multidimensional 2013, DANE (2014)

[2] Colombia, The World Factbook (2014)

[3] Pobreza Monetaria y Multidimensional 2013, DANE (2014)

[4] cited in IACHR Country Report 2015

[5] Ibid

[7] Pobreza Monetaria y Multidimensional 2013, DANE (2014)

[8] Comunicado de prensa: pobreza en Colombia, Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (2011)

[9] Colombia, Amnesty International (2014)

[10] Divide and Purchase, Oxfam (2013)


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